The following paper ‘The lumbar multifidus muscle and patterns of pain‘ by Jon Cornwall, A. John Harris, Susan R. Mercer, published in ELSEVIER in 2005, highlights the inaccuracy of pain as a diagnostic tool for low back pain. This statement follows their experiments using hypertonic saline injected into multifidus muscle. The results showed that multifidus shows local and referred pain which can be to the anterior or the posterior thigh; overlapping with pain patterns from other structures in the low back which also lead to low back pain.

It is also important to take into account that multifidus is a muscle that is essential in the recovery of low back pain as shown in the research by Hides J. et al in 1996.